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Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry. It is primarily used in the formulation of animal feed to improve the amino acid profile of the feed. Feeding of MBM to cattle is thought to have been responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). In most parts of the world, MBM is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals. However, in some areas, including the US, MBM is still used to feed monogastric animals.
In Europe, some MBM is used as an ingredient in pet food but the vast majority is now used as a fossil-fuel replacement for renewable energy generation, as a fuel in cement kilns, landfill or incineration.
Loss on dryingEdit
- 6.5 % (n= 124, s.d.=1.94) (Bruyer, 1990)
- 1.9% min, 3.1% median, 5.7% max (n=18)(Garcia, 2006)
|55.1 %, dry basis||124||5.81||34.4||73.8||Western Europe (1987-1988)||Bruyer, 1990|
|56.8 %||94||5.6||38.5||73.6||New Zealand||Hendriks, 2002|
|52.73 %, (as recieved ?)||11||4.44||45.69||58.97||North America||Firman, 2003|
|52.0%, dry basis||9||6.09||46.0||66.3||North America||Lapidus, 1958|
|51.6%||126||2.32||na||na||North America||Doty, 1969|
|51.4%, dry basis||15||3.1||45.2||57.6||North America||Lueking, 1996|
|59.6%, dry basis||14||3.8||na||na||North America, porcine only||Orias, 1999|
|53.2%, dry basis||15||3.1||46.50||60.40||North America, mixed species||Kirstein, 1999|
|59.6%, dry basis||18||3.9||49.6||64.2||North America, porcine only||Kirstein, 1999|
|56.6% (median), moisture free basis||18||--||44.6||62.8||North America||Garcia, 2006|
- 14.3 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 8.78) (Bruyer, 1990)
- 2.3 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 1.21)
- 27.5 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 9.73)
- Carbon 40.4 wt% (Conesa, 2003)
- Hydrogen 6.4 " "
- Sulfur 0.5 " "
- 7.8 wt%, as recieved (Conesa, 2003)
- 8.82 g/100g DM (n=124, s.d.=0.930) (Bryer, 1990)
- Chlorine 0.8 " "
- 16,900 kJ/kg (Conesa, 2003)
- 680 kg/m^3
Price, volume and availabilityEdit
Typically about US$200/ ton
Bruyer, D. C., M. Foulon, et al. (1990). "The amino acid composition of meat and bone meal and its predictability." Archives of Animal Nutrition 40(3): 259-265.
Conesa, J. A., A. Fullana, et al. (2003). "Thermal decomposition of meat and bone meal." Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 70(2): 619-630.
Doty, D. M. (1969). "Nutritional constituents in animal and poultry byproduct meals." Feedstuffs 41: 24-30, 58.
Doty, D. M. (1970). Mineral Constituents in Animal By-Product Meals, FPRF.
Dvorak, Z. and I. Vognarova (1969). "Nutritive value of the proteins of veal, beef and pork determined on the basis of available essential amino acids or hydroxyproline analysis." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 20: 146-150.
Garcia, R. A., K. A. Rosentrater and R. A. Flores. (2006). Characteristics of north American meat & bone meal relevant to the development of non-feed applications. Applied Eng. in Agric. 22(5): 729-736.
Hendriks, W. H., C. A. Butts, et al. (2002). "Nutritional quality and variation of meat and bone meal." Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences 15(10): 1507-1516.
Hua, K., L. Liu, et al. (2005). "Determination of Phosphorus Fractions in Animal Protein Ingredients." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(5): 1571 -1574.
Kirstein, D. D. (1999). "Composition and quality of porcine meat and bone meal." Proceedings of the Tri-state dairy nutrition conference: 223-242.
Lapidus, M., L. Lempka, et al. (1958). "Composition Studies on Meat and Bone Meal. I. Proximate Analysis and the Calcium Phosphorus Ration." Feedstuffs 30(31): 18,19,22,24.
Lueking, D. D., N. R. Merchen, et al. (1996). "Variation in composition and in situ and in vitro digestion of meat and bone meals." Journal of Animal Science 74(Supplement 1): 82.
Nuckles, R. O., D. M. Smith, et al. (1990). Meat by-product protein composition and functional properties in model systems. Journal of food science, Chicago, Ill. : The Institute. 55: 640.
Orias, F., N. R. Merchen, et al. (1999). "Characterization of variation in composition and in situ protein degradation of porcine meat and bone meal." Journal of Animal Science 77(SUPPL. 1): 249.
Shirley, R. B. and C. M. Parsons (2001). "Effect of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal." Poultry science 80: 626-632.
- PDM Group Information on the use of meat and bone meal for renewable power generation.