Meat & bone meal

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry. It is primarily used in the formulation of animal feed to improve the amino acid profile of the feed. Feeding of MBM to cattle is thought to have been responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). In most parts of the world, MBM is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals. However, in some areas, including the US, MBM is still used to feed monogastric animals.

In Europe, some MBM is used as an ingredient in pet food but the vast majority is now used as a fossil-fuel replacement for renewable energy generation, as a fuel in cement kilns, landfill or incineration.



Loss on dryingEdit

  • 6.5 % (n= 124, s.d.=1.94) (Bruyer, 1990)
  • 1.9% min, 3.1% median, 5.7% max (n=18)(Garcia, 2006)

Crude proteinEdit

ns.d.minmaxmaterial sourcereference
55.1 %, dry basis1245.8134.473.8Western Europe (1987-1988)Bruyer, 1990
56.8 %945.638.573.6 New ZealandHendriks, 2002
52.73 %, (as recieved ?)114.4445.6958.97North AmericaFirman, 2003
52.0%, dry basis 96.0946.066.3North AmericaLapidus, 1958
51.6% 1262.32nanaNorth AmericaDoty, 1969
51.4%, dry basis153.145.257.6North AmericaLueking, 1996
59.6%, dry basis143.8nanaNorth America, porcine onlyOrias, 1999
53.2%, dry basis153.146.5060.40North America, mixed species Kirstein, 1999
59.6%, dry basis183.949.664.2North America, porcine onlyKirstein, 1999
56.6% (median), moisture free basis18--44.662.8North AmericaGarcia, 2006

Crude fatEdit

  • 14.3 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 8.78) (Bruyer, 1990)

Crude fiberEdit

  • 2.3 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 1.21)


  • 27.5 %, dry basis (n=124, s.d.= 9.73)


  • Carbon 40.4 wt% (Conesa, 2003)
  • Hydrogen 6.4 " "
  • Sulfur 0.5 " "
  • Nitrogen
7.8 wt%, as recieved (Conesa, 2003)
8.82 g/100g DM (n=124, s.d.=0.930) (Bryer, 1990)
  • Chlorine 0.8 " "

Amino acidEdit

  • Ala
  • Cys
  • cystine
  • Asp(+Asn)
  • Glu(+Gln)
  • Phe
  • Gly
  • His
  • Ile
  • Lys
  • Leu
  • Met
  • Asn
  • Pro
  • Gln
  • Arg
  • Ser
  • Thr
  • Val
  • Trp
  • Tyr
  • Hyp

Physical propertiesEdit

Heating valueEdit

  • 16,900 kJ/kg (Conesa, 2003)

Bulk densityEdit

  • 680 kg/m^3

Price, volume and availabilityEdit

Typically about US$200/ ton

Similar materialsEdit


Bruyer, D. C., M. Foulon, et al. (1990). "The amino acid composition of meat and bone meal and its predictability." Archives of Animal Nutrition 40(3): 259-265.

Conesa, J. A., A. Fullana, et al. (2003). "Thermal decomposition of meat and bone meal." Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 70(2): 619-630.

Doty, D. M. (1969). "Nutritional constituents in animal and poultry byproduct meals." Feedstuffs 41: 24-30, 58.

Doty, D. M. (1970). Mineral Constituents in Animal By-Product Meals, FPRF.

Dvorak, Z. and I. Vognarova (1969). "Nutritive value of the proteins of veal, beef and pork determined on the basis of available essential amino acids or hydroxyproline analysis." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 20: 146-150.

Garcia, R. A., K. A. Rosentrater and R. A. Flores. (2006). Characteristics of north American meat & bone meal relevant to the development of non-feed applications. Applied Eng. in Agric. 22(5): 729-736.

Hendriks, W. H., C. A. Butts, et al. (2002). "Nutritional quality and variation of meat and bone meal." Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences 15(10): 1507-1516.

Hua, K., L. Liu, et al. (2005). "Determination of Phosphorus Fractions in Animal Protein Ingredients." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(5): 1571 -1574.

Kirstein, D. D. (1999). "Composition and quality of porcine meat and bone meal." Proceedings of the Tri-state dairy nutrition conference: 223-242.

Lapidus, M., L. Lempka, et al. (1958). "Composition Studies on Meat and Bone Meal. I. Proximate Analysis and the Calcium Phosphorus Ration." Feedstuffs 30(31): 18,19,22,24.

Lueking, D. D., N. R. Merchen, et al. (1996). "Variation in composition and in situ and in vitro digestion of meat and bone meals." Journal of Animal Science 74(Supplement 1): 82.

Nuckles, R. O., D. M. Smith, et al. (1990). Meat by-product protein composition and functional properties in model systems. Journal of food science, Chicago, Ill. : The Institute. 55: 640.

Orias, F., N. R. Merchen, et al. (1999). "Characterization of variation in composition and in situ protein degradation of porcine meat and bone meal." Journal of Animal Science 77(SUPPL. 1): 249.

Shirley, R. B. and C. M. Parsons (2001). "Effect of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal." Poultry science 80: 626-632.

External linksEdit

  • PDM Group Information on the use of meat and bone meal for renewable power generation.